For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (А, В, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
|A branch||В item||C piece||D part|
Checking your mobile phone
How often do you check your phone? For many of us, our phone is an essential 0 _____of everyday life, but apparently we are spending an increasing amount of time checking it for information without being 1 _____ of doing so.
Research in Helsinki shows that phone checking 2 _____ lasts less than 30 seconds on each occasion, and usually 3 _____ of opening a single application such as social media. The study also found many users check their mobiles throughout the 4 _____ day, and that what they check is often 5 _____ with particular contexts. For instance, when travelling to work or college, people tend to check their email; if they are bored, they get a quick 6 _____ on the latest news.
Checking this frequently can easily become a habit, which some say can 7 _____ us from more important things. Others, though, believe that being able to 8 _____ so much new information so quickly makes life far more interesting.
|1||A sensitive||B cautious||C sensible||D conscious|
|2||A virtually||B typically||C widely||D suitably|
|3||A consists||B composes||C involves||D includes|
|4||A complete||B total||C normal||D entire|
|5||A attached||B assumed||C associated||D accompanied|
|6||A update||B revision||C review||D upgrade|
|7||A disturb||B distract||C disrupt||D distribute|
|8||A capture||B import||C obtain||D seize|
For questions 9-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on tho separate answer sheet.
The Australian city of Perth
Perth, 0 _____ capital of the state of Western Australia, has been described as one of the most remote cities 9 _____ Earth. Founded in 1829 and named after Perth in Scotland, it grew rapidly in the late nineteenth century 10 _____ a result of the discovery of gold in the state. Nowadays it has a population of around two million people, and many of 11 _____ were born outside Australia. This has led 12 _____ Perth becoming a culturally diverse city, in 13 _____ of the fact that the nearest large town is over 2,000 kilometres away, with well-established communities from southern Europe and South-East Asia 14 _____ particular. The city’s five universities have also attracted students from 15 _____ over the world. Young people find much to enjoy in and around Perth on 16 _____ of its outdoor lifestyle, which offers a wide range of activities including swimming at its many beaches, cycling both in town and countryside, and visiting nearby nature reserves.
For questions 17-24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
Advertising in schools
In certain countries, there has been rapid 0 _____ in the spending power of teenagers. Realising this, firms are aiming even more of their 17 _____ at young people, and 18 _____ they are doing this by advertising directly in schools. These companies see children as the 19 _____ of the future, and hope that when they become adults they will maintain their 20 _____ to brands they first started buying in their youth.
As a result, many 21 _____ are keen to supply equipment to schools, sponsor sports activities or provide students with kit that carries their logo. Other firms install machines selling snacks and drinks, and these are often highly 22 _____ for both the companies and the schools.
There is, however, considerable 23 _____ about whether this is a good idea. Some claim these firms provide a useful service, but others argue that these machines encourage 24 _____ eating habits at a time when many doctors are concerned about the diet of the young.