- D – conscious. To be conscious of something is to be aware of it, to realise and understand what you do.
- B – typically. Normally, usually or habitually.
- A – consists. The only verb here that forms a strong collocation with the ‘of’ preposition.
- D – entire. Whole, all day.
- C – associated. Associated with here means ‘connected with, related to’; ‘accompanied with’ shouldn’t be used because the meaning would change to ‘joined by’.
- A – update. This is the only noun that takes the preposition ‘on’.
- B – distract. To distract is so take somebody’s attention from something.
- C – obtain. You can obtain information, buy you can’t capture, import or seize it.
- on. ‘on Earth’ – on the surface of our planet.
- as. ‘As a result’ is used in the meaning ‘because, due to’.
- them/these/those. Any of the determiners can be used with virtually no change to the meaning of the sentence.
- to. ‘lead to something/to doing something’ – to cause something, to make something happen.
- spite. ‘In spite’ is spelled in two words and followed by ‘of’ preposition. Not to be confused with ‘despite’ which is one word and takes no prepositions: ‘In spite of his success he was never truly happy’; ‘Despite the poor weather we still enjoyed the weekend’
- in. ‘In particular’ here has the meaning ‘especially, specifically’.
- all. ‘From all over the world’ – from everywhere, from all parts of the planet.
- account. ‘On account of something’ – due to, because of something.
- products. Plural form of the noun is required here as suggested by the context.
- increasingly. To do something in a certain manner – an adverb is required here, formed by adding ‘-ly’ ending to the word.
- consumers. ‘Children’ is plural here and so should be ‘consumers’ – people who consume a product.
- loyalty. ‘Loyalty to something’ (in this case, certain commercial product) means choosing that particular brand in favour of all others because you’ve used it and liked it in the past.
- manufacturers. Another plural form of the word suggested by the determiner ‘many’.
- profitable. A common adverb+adjective combination, the adjective formed by adding the ‘-able’ suffix.
- disagreement. The context of the last paragraph suggests using the word in the negative, so we form a noun by adding a negative prefix ‘dis-‘ and an ending ‘-ment’.
- unhealthy. Another negative word, this time an adjective, formed by adding a negative prefix ‘un-‘.
- any trees were left/still standing. Inversion is used here, making the sentence a bit more difficult to get right. ‘Hardly any’ is the paraphrase of ‘very few’.
- how high that building. Even though we’re using reported speech, ‘that’ isn’t changed as there is nothing to change it to.
- much difference between. A comparison between two things is made, using the construction ‘there is (not) much difference between’.
- say (that) he was sorry. ‘That’ is optional here and can be left out.
- find (so) attractive about. ‘Attractive’ should be used with ‘about’ and not ‘in’, a common mistake.
- to succeed in winning. ‘To succeed in doing something’.
- C. The first few sentences of the text give us the idea of how uncomfortable she was with her current choice of clothing. Answer A is not mentioned in the text. Answer B is wrong, as the opposite is meant – she didn’t sleep much at home and neither on the plane. The opposite of Answer D is said – she expected to have a ‘lie-in’ the following day – to stay in her bed longer than usual.
- D. ‘To sum things up; the important thing is’
- C. Paragraph Three, bottom half: ‘But Gerome insisted she go in Bernie’s place’. Gerome, her boss, wanted Alex to go instead of Bernie, who had had a stroke.
- A. She was ‘jobless and penniless’, so she decided to go to London. Answers B and C are not mentioned. The opposite of answer D is stated -journalist ‘wasn’t her first choice’.
- D. Paragraph Five, in the middle: ‘Seeing him lying there unconscious, so still and frail, was a shock to Alex’. Answers A and B are not mentioned in the text. Answer C is false – Bernie couldn’t have said anything.
- B. Last paragraph, in the middle: ‘… Alex loved the pastel feel of the city…’ The opposite of Answer A can be found in the text – she found the city more exciting than her ex-boyfriend. Answer C is not mentioned. Answer D is wrong as the hotel Bernie had booked was ‘predictably modest’ – not luxurious at all.
- F. The previous sentence mentions Niklas’s attitude to ice, and then further explanation is given in Sentence F on how the Swedes perceive danger, how take take risks and their approach to it.
- B. The author is referring to his first careful attempt at skating on natural ice – cautious at first, but then filled with joy as he tries it with the rest of the group.
- G. Ice skating surfaces vary in quality, and both Sentence G and the next one talk about it.
- A. The reason for their ‘unscheduled’ (not planned) trip was to find the perfect ice, suitable for skating.
- E. The speed and the ease of skating mentioned previously allow to travel incredible distances over time – like the one mentioned in Sentence E.
- D. The ‘sharp noise’ mentioned in the previous sentence refers to the ice cracking slowly – the event mentioned in Sentence D.
- C. The author mentions missing the football pitch (football field). ‘It’s a pity’ he says.
- E. Unemployment would’ve been higher if it wasn’t for the tourism and the jobs it creates.
- D. First two sentences talk about ‘really ugly houses’ that should not have been built and how the local residents should have protested.
- C. Fishing used to be the main source of income and a strong industry, now replaced by luxurious yachts of the rich.
- A. The effect on the environment is mentioned, how there used to be vast areas of woods, now turned into concrete – roads and pavements.
- B. Last sentence talks about how it can be beneficial to learn from other cultures, using food and ways of living as the examples.
- C. Last sentence of C mentions tourists doing things they would never have thought about doing in their hometowns and how law enforcement has to get involved.
- A. First sentence talks about the money attracted by the tourist industry and the improvement of the local infrastructure it brought about.
- E. The profits go to the companies that are based in other countries – the tour operators and the big hotel chains.
- D. According to the author, the measures taken to make the tourism more eco-friendly are not enough and only make people feel better about themselves