For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (А, В, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
|A cause||В bring||C lead||D make|
Teenagers really do need more sleep
It has long been suspected that lack of sleep can actually 0 _____ to illness, particularly in young people. Research 1 _____ students aged 14-19 over a three-week period now appears to 2 _____ this.
The teenagers wore devices that recorded the movements they made, without being 3 _____ of them, that indicated they were asleep. The results were then 4 _____ to the number of illnesses that they had 5 _____ from during the three weeks, in addition to the number of occasions on which they had been 6 _____ from school.
What the study showed was that students who slept fewer than seven hours a night caught colds, flu and other relatively 7 _____ illnesses more often. The problem is that as children enter their teens their natural sleeping patterns change, 8 _____ in them going to sleep later and therefore wanting to wake up later – but they still have to get up in the morning to go to school.
|1||A enclosing||B combining||C associating||D involving|
|2||A assure||B confirm||C defend||D justify|
|3||A awake||B aware||C familiar||D sensitive|
|4||A compared||B measured||C balanced||D qualified|
|5||A caught||B affected||C suffered||D experienced|
|6||A outside||B remote||C distant||D absent|
|7||A light||B minor||C smaller||D slight|
|8||A resulting||B producing||C finishing||D forcing|
For questions 9-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
Music really can reduce that pain
A survey has recently been carried 0 _____ into the way music affects people in pain, and 9 _____ it seems to show is that certain songs can actually reduce the sensation of physical pain. About 40% of people suffering 10 _____ continuous pain said that music helped them feel better, with an even higher figure 11 _____ young people: a remarkable two-thirds of those taking part 12 _____ reported to have said it had had a positive effect 13 _____ their symptoms.
The type of music played appears to make less difference than might 14 _____ imagined. Pop music, as 15 _____ as it is fairly gentle and not too loud, is slightly ahead of classical as the favourite for dealing with pain. Researchers believe that listening to your favourite music, 16 _____ may directly affect both your emotions and your thoughts, can have the very welcome effect of distracting you from what is hurting.
For questions 17-24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
Letting the sea in
The small 0 _____ town of Medmerry has found an unusual way to reduce the risk of flooding: let the sea in. The scheme involved the 17 _____ of part of the existing sea wall and the building of seven kilometres of new, higher 18 _____ further inland, closer to local communities. This has led to the 19 _____ of a large area of wetland, capable of absorbing the energy of the waves and therefore bringing about a 20 _____ reduction in flooding at times of storm and high tides.
According to environmental scientists, this 21 _____ project will also turn the whole area into a 22 _____ nature reserve. It is already attracting large numbers of birds and other wildlife and eventually it should provide a safe home for some of the country’s most 23 _____ species. This is bound to attract more visitors to the area, although it remains 24 _____whether numbers will have to be limited in order to protect the reserve.