You are going to read an article about dreaming. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap (37-42). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
Can we control our dreams?
Strange as it seems, the answer is yes – and it could help us solve our problems.
Do we have any influence over the often strange, wandering, night-time journeys in our mind? Could we learn to dream differently, getting rid of repeated nightmares or finding answers to the problems that we cannot solve in daylight hours? Strange though it may seem, the answer is yes. Research suggests that, using practical and psychological techniques, we can influence our dreams and use them to draw on the vast, largely unused resource of our unconscious mind.
Deirdre Barrett, an assistant clinical professor of psychology at Harvard Medical School, is convinced we all have the power to manage our dreams. ‘If you want to dream about a particular subject,’ she says, ‘focus on it once you are in bed. 37 __. You can also place an object or photo that represents the desired dream on your bedside table,’ Barrett says.
Another key factor in using one’s dreams creatively is to avoid jumping out of bed the moment you wake up. 38 __. ‘If you don’t recall a dream immediately, lie still and see if a thought or image comes to mind,’ Barrett says. ‘Sometimes a whole dream will come flooding back.’
The point of this second strategy is to make use of the information presented by our unconscious as we sleep. It’s hard to put an exact figure on the ratio of our unconscious to conscious mind, but psychologists estimate it to be nine to one. We may believe that thinking is our best problem-solving strategy, but the power of our conscious mind is relatively tiny. 39 __. So letting the unconscious mind work on it may be healthier and more productive.
Barrett put this to the test in a week-long study with college students. She asked them to use dreaming as a way of finding ways of dealing with a particular problem. 40 __. ‘If we’re stuck on a problem, it’s our waking, logical way of thinking that’s stuck,’ Barrett says. ‘The dream’s power lies in the fact that it’s a different manner of thought – it adds to and develops what we’ve already done while awake.’
Most of us enjoy the rich, pleasantly strange experience of dreaming (and we all dream – some people just don’t remember it). But no one enjoys nightmares that keep coming back, or the kind of unpleasant dreams from which you wake sweating. 41 __. ‘It’s very common for them to have nightmares about being chased by a monster,’ says Delphi Ellis, a counsellor and dream expert. ‘This often happens as they get older and become aware of their place in the huge world.’
As an adult, troubling or frightening dreams are often an indication of difficult issues from the past,’ Ellis says. 42 __. They and all other kinds of dream are an incredibly valuable resource, which most of us simply ignore. So learn to listen to them, even the horrible ones – they’re always trying to tell you something.’
A. It’s one in which you know you’re dreaming as the dream is occurring – the kind of ‘dream within a dream’ that film characters sometimes have.
B. Even more anxiety-causing, if you’re a parent, are the scary ones that have such an effect on your kids.
C. Doing so means you’ll lose half of what your dream contained as the day’s distractions take over your thoughts.
D. About half of them dreamt about it and one-quarter of them solved it
E. Since dreaming is so visual, form a picture in your mind of something related to that topic as you fall asleep.
F. The more you ignore dreams like those, the more your unconscious turns up the volume – so a nightmare is that message on full volume.
G. Also, when this consists of going over and over negative or worrying issues in our minds, it is strongly linked with stress, depression and anxiety.
You are going to read a magazine article about bicycles. For questions 43 – 52, choose from the sections (A – D). The people may be chosen more than once.
43. bought a second-hand bike? __
44. says their new bike is good value for money? __
45. found it difficult to slow down at one point? __
46. had to take their bike in for repair? __
47. needed to put the bike together before they could ride it? __
48. bought a new bicycle to replace one that had been stolen? __
49. says that riding their bike up hills is tiring? __
50. says they wish they had checked the size of the bike sooner? __
51. had to get off their bike when they were riding to fix it? __52. compares cycling with another way of keeping fit? __
My new bike
Four people share their experience of owning a bicycle
A Jonas Hagen
I bought my new mountain bike online and as soon as it was delivered to my home in kit form I set to work. Once it actually looked like a bike and I’d checked that everything seemed to be working properly, I set off down the road. All went well at first, but later on I had a brief moment of panic when the brakes suddenly failed and I narrowly avoided crashing into a hedge. I adjusted them when I got home, and since then they’ve been fine. The only other adjustment I’ve had to make is to raise the seat to the maximum because it turns out this bike is for riders whose inside leg measures considerably less than mine. I should really have noticed that before I bought it.
В Lili Huang
I originally bought my bike just for occasional use, but now I go everywhere on it. It’s great exercise, every bit as good as going to the gym. It feels just the right size for me and somehow I always feel full of energy when I’m on it, even when my friends and I ride into the mountains at weekends. I’ve only ever had one breakdown, which was when the chain broke. Fortunately there was a garage nearby, where a very kind car mechanic quickly got me back on the road. I don’t know what I’d do without my bike, which is slightly worrying because a lot of people round here have had their bikes stolen. That’s why I keep it in the hall downstairs, rather than in the street.
C James Thompson
This is only the second bicycle I’ve ever bought. It was on offer at the local cycle shop and I think I got something of a bargain because on the whole I’ve been pleased with it. At first I had some difficulties with the gears, but I managed to sort those out while I was riding. It’s a very solid bike, though that does mean it’s rather heavy and I wouldn’t want to have to push it far if I had a breakdown. It also makes pedalling up steep slopes hard work, although fortunately most of the routes round here are reasonably flat. I don’t think it’s the kind of bike anyone would want to steal, but I always secure it with a good strong lock just in case. Recently I’ve also fitted more powerful front and rear lights so that drivers can see me better after dark.
D Mia Doherty
I actually chose this bike in something of a hurry. I’d left my old one outside the sports centre and when I came back it had just disappeared. I reported it, of course, but that was the last I ever saw of it, and I needed a new one to get to work every day. I probably paid more than I should have done for it, though I know the previous owner had looked after it well and I haven’t had any trouble with it. Apart, that is, from a flat tyre which meant I had to stop and mend it on the way home in the pouring rain. Riding it certainly helps keep me fit, and even in weather like that I wouldn’t change it for a car. The only incident I’ve had was when a dog ran out into the road in front of me, but the brakes did their job superbly.