For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (А, В, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Messages from the Stone Age
The incredible pre-historic Chauvet cave art in France is painted in 0 _____ colours and dates back to a period around thirty thousand years ago when early humans first started to create rock art. Although various 1 _____ of this art have been found in caves in Western Europe, very few people have seen the art at Chauvet because it is located 2 _____ inside an inaccessible underground cave system. Those who have seen it say that it is very impressive, showing animals 3 _____ horses, rhinos and cows, and that the artwork is good enough to 4 _____ modern compositions.
The first scientists to 5 _____ the Chauvet paintings missed some other important 6 _____ however. The walls of the cave are also marked with a series of lines and symbols, that were initially 7 _____ as insignificant. But recent research has suggested that these marks may represent humankind’s first steps towards the development of writing, which is 8 _____ people to rethink their ideas about when written communication first started.
|1||A illustrations||B models||C cases||D examples|
|2||A deep||B thick||C long||D dense|
|3||A by means of||B apart from||C as well as||D such as|
|4||A rival||B compare||C compete||D oppose|
|5||A arrive||B reach||C meet||D know|
|6||A instances||B matters||C details||D issues|
|7||A believed||B regarded||C thought||D agreed|
|8||A resulting||B having||C making||D causing|
For questions 9-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on tho separate answer sheet.
Swimming with seals
The UK is home to half the world’s population of grey seals and there 0 _____ many local boat trips offering sightseeing tours out to the islands and sandbanks 9 _____ the animals are most regularly found.
But if you really want to get close 10 _____ the seals and understand something about their way of life, then you need to go on an underwater seal-watching trip. On these trips, you have the chance to go over the side of the boat and, equipped 11 _____ a wetsuit, mask and snorkel, spend time in the water alongside the animals.
Seals are extremely inquisitive creatures and, once you’re in the water, they will swim past you trying to work 12 _____ who you are and 13 _____ you’re doing there. 14 _____ they can appear shy at first, seals soon 15 _____ used to you being in the water, and will come and play around you. Young pups especially like to 16 _____ contact with divers, and often use their teeth, gently biting masks, fins and cameras out of curiosity. It can be a thrilling experience.
For questions 17-24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
According to experts, doing puzzles keeps our brains fit and 0 _____ As well as gaining 17 _____ from finding the correct answer to a difficult problem, we give our brains a good workout in the process. To help us do this, all sorts of handheld ‘brain games’ are now available in the shops, and the most 18_____ games have sold in their millions.
What’s more, people 19 _____ that the more they play the games, the easier it is to find a 20 _____ to the problems posed. They see this as proof that there has been an 21 _____ in the power of their brains. Unfortunately, however, this may be a false impression.
Some 22 _____ argue that the brain gets better at any task the more often it is repeated. In other words, the improvement in the 23 _____ of the brain is something that happens naturally. So although these brain games are obviously fun to play, it remains 24 _____ whether they are actually helping to boost brainpower or not.