The vocabulary below is meant to help you with the more difficult words. If the word isn’t on the list then you are either supposed to know it or it is too specific to be worth learning and you don’t have to know it to answer the question. Symbols in brackets mean part of speech(see bottom of the list). Sentences in italics give examples of usage for some more complex words and phrases.
And remember — you are not given a vocabulary list(or a dictionary) at your real exam.
Brute (n) — a person lacking culture, sophistication. Her new boyfriend is a 2 meter tall uncultured brute.
Pitch (n) — (in music or singing) a certain frequency degree of a sound. Violins make high-pitched sounds. Bass instruments (otherwise known as percussion) produce low-pitched sound.
Roar (n) — loud growling cry typical to large animals such as lions, tigers or gorillas.
Grunt (n) — low and rough noise made by animals such as pigs or boars.
Cast (n) — (here) shape that is left by something that was previously there.
Waist (n) —the part of your body where it is the most narrow (above your his but below your chest, in the area of your navel (bellybutton).
Coincide (v) — occur or happen at the same time, simultaneously. Their timetables coincide every Tuesday so they try to have lunch together on that day.
Packed (adj) — completely filled or full of something (e.g. people). Shops are packed full of customers just before Christmas.
Pop into — to visit some place briefly. We popped into a pub on our way to family dinner for a pint of beer.
Reluctant (adj) — unwilling, not eager to do something. Students nowadays are reluctant to have a part-time job.
Fast-paced (adj) — happening or developing quickly. This is a fast-paced movie — the plot develops surprisingly rapidly.
Pole (n) — long and thing piece of wood (or other material). My father is a proud owner of a huge collection of fishing poles.
Boost (v) — encourage, help or improve. Increase speed of. Holidays really help to boost sales throughout the world.
Devise (v) — to work something out, to come up with something. I have devised a way to reduce our expenditures by almost 40 percent!
Stride (v) — long step or pace. (Figurative) Rate of progress.
Origin (n) — source, place of birth. The origin of these works of art is unknown.
Entire (adj) — whole, all of it. By the end of his presidential term, country’s entire population was in love with the president.
Outfit (n) — set of clothes, apparel. Her outfit was informal yet carefully chosen.
Crimson (adj) — vivid red colour.
Shift (n) — change, alteration.
Plumage (n) — layer of feathers covering bird’s body. Male birds tend to have brighter plumage to attract mating partners.
Larvae (n) — a small worm that turns into a different form of life when in grows up.
Speculate (v) — to make assumptions about something without having factual information on it. I wish people would stop speculating about my family’s business.
Lethality (n) — state of being lethal — causing death. Also a synonym for mortality.
Foliage (n) —green leaves of a tree or plant.
Reverence (n) — feeling of deep respect towards something. I have deep reverence for people who dedicate their lives to scientific research.
Contemplate (v) — to think about something for a long time, to consider something slowly. She seemed as if she was contemplating her next move.
Breed (n) — kind or group of organisms, a species. This is a dying breed so it’s illegal to hunt them.
Reluctance (n) — see Part 2 reluctant (adj).
Fee (n) — amount of money paid for a service. The car parking fee here is two dollars an hour.
Crucial (adj) — extremely important. Choosing your profession is going to be your life’s most crucial decision.
Appraisal (n) — evaluation of price or value. If you want to know your net worth you have to do an appraisal of your house.
Permanent (adj) — existing on a long-term basis, not temporary. Permanent residency is granted to people on condition that they have an employment record of at least two years.
Tough (adj) — difficult to deal with, rough. Tough times are behind and we can now finally have some rest.
Gap (n) — (here) empty space. Your car has a gap between two body panels.
Premises (n) — a building and all of the land related to it. Only authorised staff are allowed to be on the premises.
Urgent (adj) — requiring immediate action or attention. There is an urgent message from one of your subordinates — please respond as soon as you can.
Perceived (adj) — (here) seemingly real, but not true in reality. His perceived success turned out to be nothing but a show for others to think he’s happy.
Envy (v) — to desire something others have that you don’t. I really envy him now — he bought the exact automobile I’ve always dreamt about.
Viable (adj) — capable of being useful, probable. The only viable solution I could come up with was to quit my job and become self-employed.
Equation (n) — a mathematical formula where two statements are equal. Used figuratively here: the amount of effort equals the amount of result.
Regard (n) — (here) in this regard = in this respect, on this point.
Coherent (adj) — logical, easy to understand; clearly put. Joshua’s presentation was pleasantly coherent — everything he had to show us was very well put.
Mutually (adv) — shared by both parties. The two groups were mutually respectful towards each other.
Consequence (n) — result or effect of something. You should understand that your action are going to have long-term consequences on your business enterprise.
Retire (v) — to give up your work or service, usually because of old age or inability to continue. Frank had to retire after he turned 60.
Rewarding (adj) — giving satisfaction, gratifying. Teaching is hard but it is very rewarding in some respects.
Unattainable (adj) — very hard or impossible to get.
Spatial awareness — your ability to quickly understand your position in space.
Alongside (adv) — near, next to. I walked alongside my friend towards the convenience store.
Benchmark (n) — a criterion to measure something. IQ test is considered a standard benchmark for one’s intelligence.
Ensure (v) — to make sure or certain.
Consistency (n) — the quality of being consistent — showing the same qualities over a long period of time. His consistency at winning races made him this year’s champion.
Exacting (adj) — tiring, exhausting. The exacting exercises I had to go through made me the Olympic winner.
Occurrence (n) — something that occurs, an event, happening. This occurrence was unique so we weren’t prepared for this.
Attrition (n) — state of being worn away, tired.
Cardiovascular (adj) — relating to blood vessels and heart. Cardiovascular diseases are common among older people.
Gruelling (adj) — severe, tiring. The conditions that the captives were held in were gruelling and miserable.
Remainder (n) — part that is left after use. Not to be confused with ‘reminder’. We spent the remainder of the week at our hotel room playing cards and drinking.
Culminate (v) — to end, usually by something intensive or significant. The evening was culminated by a fight between two of my best friends.
Dwell (v) —to live somewhere more or less permanently.
Maintenance (n) — the act of keeping something in good condition. German cars require a lot of expensive maintenance to stay reliable.
Berth (v) — to dock a ship. The freighter had to be docked for the night because a storm was approaching.
Elation (n) — good mood, high spirit because of something pleasant. The elation I felt after having graduated was like nothing I had ever experienced.
Trepidation (n) — fear of anxiety.
Overwhelming (adj) — overpowering in force or effect.
Plethora (n) — excess or abundance, a great number. There is a plethora of well-known writers from England.
Diverse (adj) — various, assorted. I have people with diverse backgrounds working alongside me.
Eligible (adj) — fit, worthy, having the right for something. You are eligible to receive financial aid from the government.
Intrinsically (adv) — naturally. Most kids are intrinsically capable of learning foreign languages.
Last resort — as a last (usually unfavourable) measure. Firing him is the last resort — I am sure there are other ways to deal with the situation.
Commuter (n) — a person that commutes — travels the same distance everyday from home to work and back. Commuters in most cities make up to 85% of all traffic.
Irascible (adj) — easily angered, irritable. My boss really has short fuse — he is extremely irascible.
Tenacity (n) — quality of being stubborn or persistent. Lidia’s tenacity helped her a great lot during her career of a sales manager.
Vested (adj) — rightfully belonging by law.
Fit out — supply with necessary equipment. Our new office was fitted out with state-of-the-art equipment.
Dismiss (v) — to reject or turn down something. No matter how good my ideas seemed he forcefully dismissed all of them.
Centrepiece (n) — (figurative) the most important part of something.
Liken (v) — to see or present as similar, to compare.
Envisage (v) — to form a mental image of something. The future of today is very far from the concept our ancestors envisaged it.
Robust (adj) — vigorous, healthy, having strong constitution.
Swagger (n) — arrogant way of behaviour, walk, manner.
Acclaimed (adj) — publicly acknowledged as something good, praiseworthy. A number of acclaimed scientists from the field visited this year’s convention.
Seamless (adj) — having visible seams or transition. The whole transfer business went smoothly and seamlessly.
Daily grind — everyday hardships and difficulties.
Uplifting (adj) — inspiring, raising moral or spirits.
Reckon (v) — to consider, regard, have an opinion. I reckon you are going to need this computer during your trip.
Symbiosis (n) — state of mutually beneficial association.
Evident (adj) — clearly visible, explicit.
Redolent (adj) — having a strong and pleasant fragrance. I bought her a bunch of redolent flowers to mark the occasion.
Uniformity (n) — state of conforming between the elements. There has to be uniformity of opinions if we want to achieve something.
Bleakness (n) — state of being bleak — desolate, lifeless and lacking colour.
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