IELTS Listening Practice Test 3

Section 4

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below:
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer

‘Self-regulatory focus theory’ and leadership

Self-regulatory focus theory
People’s focus is to approach pleasure or avoid pain
Promotion goals focus on 31
Prevention goals emphasise avoiding punishment

Factors that affect people’s focus
The Chronic Factor
• comes from one’s 32
The 33
• we are more likely to focus on promotion goals when with a 34
• we are more likely to focus on prevention goals with our boss

How people’s focus affects them
Promotion Focus: People think about an ideal version of themselves, their 35 and their gains.
Prevention Focus: People think about their ‘ought’ self and their obligations

Leadership behavior and 36 affects people’s focus
Transformational Leaders:
• pay special attention to the 37 of their followers
• passionately communicate a clear 38
• inspire promotion focus in followers
Transactional Leaders:
• create 39 to make expectations clear
• emphasise the results of a mistake
• inspire prevention focus in followers

Promotion Focus is good for jobs requiring 40
Prevention Focus is good for work such as a surgeon
Leaders’ actions affect which focus people use

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