For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (А, В, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
The Space Age began 0 _____ over half a century ago, and ever since then the area just 1 _____ the Earth’s atmosphere has been filling up with all kinds of man-made objects that have become 2 _____ as ‘space junk’. The items up there 3 _____ from old satellites and parts of rockets to hundreds of thousands of pieces smaller than one centimetre, all of them travelling at extremely 4 _____ speed. Over the last five years, the number of such objects in space is 5 _____ to have risen by 50 per cent, and this has 6 _____ increased the risk of damage to working satellites or space vehicles with crews on board.
International agreement has therefore now been 7 _____ on limiting the amount of new space junk. Scientists have also 8 _____ some interesting suggestions for tidying up space. These include using laser beams, giant nets and even an enormous umbrella-like device to collect tiny bits of junk.
|1||A along||B away||C out||D beyond|
|2||A referred||B known||C called||D named|
|3||A include||B enclose||C cover||D range|
|4||A high||B rapid||C light||D fast|
|5||A assessed||B supposed||C estimated||D regarded|
|6||A largely||B greatly||C importantly||D absolutely|
|7||A arrived||B reached||C finished||D closed|
|8||A caught up with||B put up with||C come up with||D kept up with|
For questions 9-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on tho separate answer sheet.
We still tend 0 _____ think chewing gum is a fairly recent invention, even 9 _____ there is evidence it was used 5,000 years ago in Finland. The Ancient Greeks also chewed gum, as 10 _____the Aztecs in Mexico during the sixteenth century. As far as we know, however, it wasn’t 11 _____ 1869 that chewing gum became popular in its present form, 12 _____ a New York inventor called Thomas Adams first had the idea of adding flavour to it.
Nowadays, of course, it is chewed around the world, 13 _____ the fact that it continues to be regarded by some 14 _____ an unpleasant habit. Unfortunately, far too many people drop used gum onto the pavement, 15 _____ it remains for some time because it is extremely difficult to remove once it has stuck to the surface. On the other hand, those 16 _____ favour of chewing gum claim it helps them relax, improves their concentration, and helps keep their teeth clean.
For questions 17-24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
Remembering people’s names
Most of us have suffered the 0 _____ of forgetting someone’s name. Often we fail to pay attention when 17 _____ are made, but later on in the conversation we don’t want to appear 18 _____ by asking them what their name is.
Fortunately, there are some simple ways you can 19 _____ this problem. One is to improve your powers of 20 _____. Practise studying faces in public places, making a mental note of physical 21 _____ such as high foreheads or narrow eyebrows. You’ll be surprised what a wide 22 _____ of shapes and sizes people’s features have. Then, when you first meet someone, remember them as ‘Laura with the small nose’, for example.
With surnames, make 23 _____ associations. For instance, imagine people called Cook, Ford or King making a meal, driving a car or wearing a crown, respectively. Finally, ending with the person’s name, as in ‘See you later, Max’ is a good way of 24 _____ that you don’t forget it.