n. scarcity – state of being scarce (very rare, hard to find)
adj. despondent – pessimistic
n. flood – a disaster involving water
adj. far-flung — distant, far-away
adj. frightening — scary
n. awe — strong fear of something.
n. pl. defences — protection against something.
adj. habitable — populated by people, animals or other living beings
adj. ill-founded — without reason, false, groundless
adj. ambiguous — dubious, having double meaning, two-sided
v. hamper — to constrain, to prevent somebody from doing something
ph. v. teem with — to be swarmed, to have something in abundance.
adj. doom-laden — catastrophic, grim
n. shortage — lack of something.
adj. relentless — having no mercy
v. testify — to give description of events you witnessed (legal term)
adj. crucial — very important
v. encourage — to promote
adj. relevant — having relation to something.
n. sabbatical – a period of leave given to teachers every seventh year of service.
lat. prima facie — at first sight, as it seems as first
adj. undervalued — underappreciated, given too little importance to
v. foist — to sell or to give by force.
adj. inherent — having relation to, intrinsic
adj. resounding — here: having strong effect on somebody.
adj. deliberate — something with a purpose
IELTS Reading Score Reference Table