1. VI — Types of Glaciers. A comprehensive description of various glaciers is given. I — Glacial Continents does not fit — Greenland is not a continent, and that is not the main idea of this paragraph.
2. II — Formation and Growth of Glaciers. The process by which glaciers appear is described in detail. Heading 3 — Glacial Movement shouldn’t be used here as the movement of glaciers is not the main topic here. Moreover, it will become useful later on.
3. III — Glacial Movement. This paragraph gives an in-depth view of how glaciers move. No other heading fits here.
4. VII — Glacial Effects on Landscapes. Various alterations to the terrain are described here. This paragraph probably contains a lot of vocabulary you are not familiar with. Concentrate on the main idea here: the fact that glaciers have a huge impact on the landscape they affect. You do not have to understand every word to choose the right heading.
5. V — Glaciers Through the Years. The paragraph tells us about glaciers in various periods of time, not just the Ice Age. This is why IV — Glaciers in the Last Ice Age wouldn’t be the right answer.
6. FALSE. The opposite is stated in the first sentence of Paragraph B.
7. TRUE. Sentence two of Paragraph B describes the process. Statement of Question 7 gives a simplified description, similar to one in that sentence.
8. TRUE. Correct. The last but one sentence of Paragraph B confirms this statement, giving both figures.
9. FALSE. Middle of Paragraph C states that the middle part of a glacier travels faster than other parts because there is nothing to cause friction and slow it down.
10. NOT GIVEN. Even though Paragraph E says that during the Last Ice Age, glaciers used to cover larger territories, it does not state that the temperatures were lower. Remember, you shouldn’t complete the ideas given in the text. Make sure you know the basic rules and tips for IELTS Reading.
11. B — alpine glacier. Paragraph A mentions glaciers that are formed at “higher elevations” — a paraphrase for “mountain”. “Horn” is not correct as it is formed by multiple alpine glaciers, according to Paragraph D.
12. D — polar glacier. The last sentence of Paragraph A clearly gives the answer.
13. H — surging glacier. The last two sentences of Paragraph B describe surging glaciers as having unusually high speeds, the fastest among all types of glaciers.
14. A — fjord. Paragraph D states that fjords are formed by ocean water that fills the coastal valleys.
15. G — cirque. Bowl is the keyword that helps find the answer at the end of Paragraph D.
16. F. This paragraph mentions the attitude of British officials towards the situation in Ireland. It also mentions how a certain individual attempted to help the Irish people but unfortunately failed because of the government and the people opposing his views. Paragraph E is wrong as it only lists certain laws introduced by the officials. No detailed description of attitude is given.
17. D. The system of dividing land into plots is described in this paragraph. Paragraph E is the wrong answer; it only mentions that the Irish were not allowed to have land in their ownership. Instead, they had to pay money to use it for a limited amount of time—to rent it.
18. B. The people of Europe were sceptical about potatoes. It was only after a certain event took place that they decided to use it for food.
19. E. Sentence 3 of Paragraph E lists what rights Irish peasants didn’t have in comparison to other people, namely the Englishmen.
20. C. first sentence of this paragraph states that potatoes became the cornerstone of the Irish diet. The following sentences continue and expand this idea.
21. I. Paragraph B, second sentence.
22. K. Paragraph B, last sentence.
23. C. Paragraph C, sentence four.
24. E. Paragraph C, last sentence.
25. G. Paragraph D, last two sentences.
26. A. Paragraph E, last two sentences.
27. H. Paragraph F, sentences two to four.
28. F. Paragraph F, last sentence.
29. FALSE. The opposite is correct—according to the second sentence of paragraph 1, the book had been in use for sixteen centuries, long after the mentioned 60 A.D. This number refers to the date when Dioscorides’ travels came to an end.
30. TRUE. Second sentence of Paragraph Two confirms this statement.
31. TRUE. Third paragraph, sentence two states that the gas can cause laughter and crying, among other effects.
32. NOT GIVEN. Only one dentist is mentioned to be using anaesthesia. Nothing is said about ‘most dentists’ using it, so we can neither confirm nor deny this statement.
33. TRUE. Last but one paragraph talks about eight years of schooling and four years of residency being required to work as an anesthesiologist. So a combined time of twelve years is required.
34. FALSE. The opposite is true, according to the last paragraph: the number of specialists has ‘more than doubled since 1970’.
35. D — chloroform. Paragraph Four states that chloroform is administered by sprinkling it on a handkerchief to let a patient inhale it.
36. B — local anaesthetic. Last but one paragraph describes the process, with a sentence starting with “Local anaesthetic is used… “. It is in the middle of the paragraph. Not to be confused with regional anaesthetic — it is used for larger parts of body. Local anaesthesia is for smaller parts of the body.
37. H — mandrake. Bottom half of the second paragraph describes the process of boiling mandrake root with wine to alleviate patient’s pain.
38. F — nitrous oxide. Third sentence of Paragraph Three describes the first anaesthetic used in dental procedure. Nitrous oxide was the first one.
39. C — regional anaesthetic. Last but one paragraph states that it is used for larger parts of the body.
40. E — ether. Third paragraph describes a globe with a sponge soaked in ether.
The vocabulary below is meant to help you with the more difficult words. If the word isn’t on the list then you are either supposed to know it or it is too specific to be worth learning and you don’t have to know it to answer the question. Symbols in brackets mean part of speech (see bottom of the list). Sentences in italics give examples of usage for some more complex words and phrases.
And remember — you are not given a vocabulary list (or a dictionary) at your real exam.
Underneath (prep) – right under something, often covered by it.
Expanse (n) – something that covers a large territory, such as sea or land. The expanses of farmland stretched as far as the eye could see.
Encompass (v) – to include, to have something as a part. The course encompasses various disciplines such as economics, politics and world history.
Compacted (adj) – taking less space but more dense, usually as a result of pressure. Compacted snow can be as hard as rock, especially in particularly cold regions.
Evaporate (v) – to turn from liquid (e.g. water) to gas (vapour) as a result of a high temperature. If you spill some water on a hot stove, it will immediately evaporate in the form of steam.
Avalanche (n) – a huge mass of snow and ice rolling down a hill or a mountain range. Skiers are often advised against going into the mountains during the spring because of the avalanche risks.
Precipitation (n) – weather phenomenon like rain or snow. There is a considerable chance of precipitation this weekend, so make sure to dress appropriately.
Surging (adj) – a sudden increase in something. Nobody could anticipate this surge in consumer goods prices.
Thawing (n) – the process of turning from solid to liquid form, especially as a result of high temperatures. Snow usually begins when the daytime temperatures are consistently above zero degrees Celsius.
Facilitate (v) – to assist, to make something quicker or easier. Credit cards were made to facilitate getting loans and change people’s spending habits.
Carve (v) – to cut something, especially cutting out parts of something. Can be used figuratively. I had to carve my way through the crows.
Recede (v) – to decrease in size or intensity. After the storm receded, we were finally able to leave the haven.
Intersect (v) – to cross, to overlap. The two roads intersected with no lights, making it a dangerous part prone to traffic accidents.
Blight (n) – referring to potato blight here, it is a fungal disease that makes potatoes inedible.
Bountiful (adj) – a large amount of something desirable. The reward for the competition was quite bountiful.
Crop (n) – a plant such as a potato or tomato that is grown for food. Crops like potatoes do not need any special soil or climate conditions and will grow practically anywhere.
Plummet (n) – a sudden and considerable decrease in something. A plummet in housing market prices was due to poor demand for real estate and an overall worsening of the economic situation.
Tenure (n) – (here) a system where ownership of a piece of land belonged to a person who would rent it out to others to live and grow crops on.
Relief efforts – actions taken in a difficult situation to help make it better. The humanitarian mission’s primary aim was to direct and fund relief efforts in countries that needed it the most.
Assumption (n) – a belief that is not based on any evidence. The previous assumption about this person’s origin was later proven wrong.
Staple (n) – (here) the main part of one’s diet.
Famine (n) – a global situation of not having enough food that results in starvation and death.
Retain (n) – to keep something that you previously had. Even though he hadn’t been doing much business in the past few years, he still retained his entrepreneurial skills.
Parcel (n) – (here) a piece of land.
Compassion (n) – one of the virtues, compassion is the ability to understand and pity other people’s suffering.
Landlord (n) – a person who owns a flat or a house and rents it out to tenants (see below)
Tenant (n) – one who pays rent to the landlord to have the right to use their room, flat, or house for living. I was one of the seven other tenants living in the old warehouse that had been converted into a small hotel.
Evict (v) – to force somebody to leave their place of living because they do not own it and can’t or won’t pay for using it.
Overdue (adj) – if something is overdue, it means that it must have been done much earlier. My book that I borrowed from the library is overdue, and now I will have to pay a fine for keeping it for too long.
Repeal (v) – to abolish a law. The current ruler has repealed a number of regulations that make perfect sense in the current economy.
Hasty (adj) – done too quickly, without much thought put into it. Your hasty preparations didn’t do you much good—you even forgot to take your mobile phone with you!
Resign (v) – to officially step down from a position, especially one that is prestigious and important, such as in politics.
Providence (n) – a religious belief in things organising themselves for the better good. I guess the reason I failed to get this job was providence; it forced me to start a business of my own that eventually flourished and made me a fortune.
Descendants (n) – people who are directly related to those who lived previously. The opposite is ‘ancestors’. They are believed to be the descendants of the rich Rockefeller family.
Animosity (n) – hatred, a strong feeling of dislike. I no longer have the animosity I had for you previously because I decided to let bygones be bygones.
Thrive (v) – to do well because of favourable conditions. The more creative students usually thrive under little to no control from their teachers.
Remedies (n) – plural of ‘remedy’ – a cure for something, either a literal one in the form of therapy and medication or a figurative one: a solution to something.
Reference source – a book, document, or any other source of data that people ‘refer to’ – either to give credibility or use for information purposes.
Makeshift (adj) – made for a particular purpose without caring for quality or longevity. Rose came up with a makeshift solution for the broken window: She used sticky tape and a piece of cardboard.
Superstition (n) – a belief based on myths and rumours rather than evidence. Village folks have the most wild superstitions about all kinds of things in life.
Induce (n) – to forcefully cause something. Induced coma is often used for patients whose lives are in danger.
Numbing (adj) – making you have less or no sensation of something. The numbing cold outside was unbearable, so I decided to go home.
Tumor (n) – a medical condition, a tumor is a collection of cells that multiply abnormally, usually as a result of a serious condition such as cancer.
Obstetrics (n) – a field of medicine concerned with pregnancy and birth. Not many men usually choose the field of obstetrics as their medicine major.
Discretion (n) – (here) willingness, agreement, consent. We will only act at your discretion; every decision will have to be confirmed by you personally.
Alleviate (v) – to make something more bearable and less painful. If you want to alleviate headache, take a pill of paracetamol with a glass of water.
Suppress (v) – to make something less active. To suppress opposition, the President hired an entire team of political technologists.
Administer (v) – (about medicine) to give medicine. Administering this injection requires patience, as the substance takes over a minute to administer fully.
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