4 NOT GIVEN
|21 5 million|
27 NOT GIVEN
32 not given
The vocabulary below is meant to help you with the more difficult words. If the word isn’t on the list then you are either supposed to know it or it is too specific to be worth learning and you don’t have to know it to answer the question. Symbols in brackets mean part of speech (see bottom of the list). Sentences in italics give examples of usage for some more complex words and phrases.
And remember — you are not given a vocabulary list (or a dictionary) at your real exam.
Reading Section 1
Controversial (adj) – arguable, with several opinions about it, causing disagreement. Testing product on animals is a very controversial subjects.
Unsustainable (adj) – impossible to maintain at current level or to be provided for. Your current level of spending is unsustainable – you won’t be able to spend so much for another year.
Burden (n) – something that is heavy and weighs you down, either figuratively or literally. Lucy had to bear the burden of being a single mother of two children.
Carbon footprint – carbon dioxide that is produced by a person, a vehicle, an organisation etc though usage of cars, electricity and consumption. Western civilisations are becoming increasingly aware of their carbon footprint, whereas third-world countries have seemingly more important considerations.
Reading Section 2
Deforestation (n) – destruction of forests, mainly by cutting them down for resources. Deforestation is directly linked to the amount of oxygen on the planet and therefore should be given our close attention.
To put something in context – if you put something in context, you give an example of how something functions in a real situation. You’re spending seven dollars a day on coffee. Put in context, that is almost $2500 a year!
Landslide (n) – a natural phenomenon involving a mass of land moving down a steep slope as a result of seismic activity. A recent landslide has destroyed several houses in the nearby area. Happily, all of the local resident had been previously evacuated.
Deem (v) – to believe or think of something in a certain way. I deem drinking the most wasteful thing one could spend time on.
Precipitation (n) – a general term for natural phenomenon such as raining or snowing. We do not expect any precipitation this week.
Unequivocally (adj) – expressed in a clear, certain manner. The management was unequivocal about their staff policy – they will not tolerate harassment at workplace.
Sustain (v) – to keep something alive or at the same level for a period of time. The company can not guarantee that they will sustain the financing for the rest of the year.
Deplete (v) – to exhaust, to use something up (usually resources). The coal mine has been depleted long time ago.
Drastic (adj) – something with a noticeable effect, usually quite strong. Our company’s approach to dress-code has undergone some drastic changes.
Whilst (conj) – a more formal variant of ‘while’.
Swath (n) – a long, narrow area of something, e.g. certain landscape or terrain. A swath of woods was broken in two by a highway.
Exacerbate (v) – to make something bad worse, to aggravate. Do not exacerbate the situation and stop arguing with your wife.
Reading Section 3
Disillusionment (n) – losing one’s positive or optimistic vision or opinion of something. Learning the sad truth about my favourite actor’s private life came as the ultimate disillusionment of this year.
Conventional (adj) – accepted as normal or traditional. The more conventional methods of teaching are slowly replaced by new, revolutionary approaches.
Sombre (adj) – serious or sad; dark. After the latest news of cutbacks the mood in the office was quite sombre .
Perception (n) – vision or way of looking at something. Lidia has the most positive perception of things, she is undeterred no matter how many setbacks she faces.
Inimitable (adj) – impossible to imitate or reproduce. The inimitable comedy style of Robin Williams.
Endure (v) – to go through difficulties, to suffer pain. I can only guess how many unpleasant hours she had to endure at work because of her bosses’ toxic attitude.
Celebrated (adj) – famous for some quality, talent or skill. Usain Bolt is celebrated worldwide for his unsurpassed speed.
Interplay (n) – the way two things, people etc. affect each other. The interplay of water and light can create the most beautiful phenomenon.
Chiaroscuro (n) – a special technique of using light and dark areas to achieve certain effects. Used in paintings, films and so on.
Suggestive of – making you think about it. Her latest film is suggestive of the Jazz Age in the US.
Click to download this IELTS Reading Worksheet in PDF.