IELTS Reading Section 1
- VI. Even though ‘shelves’ are not mentioned in the text, it should be understood figuratively: the genre has become very popular.
- IV. The first ever (the original) dystopias are mentioned, as well as the first YA dystopian title.
- VII. The paragraph draws parallels between teenager’s real life experience at school, the struggles of Young Adult dystopias’ characters and how teenagers can relate to them. experiences.
- II. To scrutinise is to give a closer look, to pay attention to details in order to find information. In the paragraph the author attempts to analyse the reasons of dyspotian literature success by deconstructing its ‘model’.
- IX. ‘Moral principles burgeon…‘, ‘modern YA literature are a response to “social anxiety” brought forth by pollution and over-consumption‘ point at the books’ attempt to raise awareness of current issues and therefore ‘promote ethical thinking’.’III – Dystopian novels now focus on climate change’ doesn’t fit here as no such information is given – even though the aspect of climate change is mentioned, it is neither the main focus of the books nor has it gained more attention from the writers recently (‘now’).
- I. To conform means to follow certain customs, to behave in a certain way that is accepted by the society you live in. The paragraph mentions how young people are expected to live up to these standards and how they refuse to.
- V. Last sentence of the paragraph sums up the idea – the effect of YA dystopian literature is going to be long-lasting and will outlive the popularity of this genre.
- Brave New World. Paragraph B, second sentence. The dates make it easy to pick the earliest book. Make sure to capitalise all three words as it is a title – a proper name.
- Lois Lawry. The middle of Paragraph B. Lois Lawry pioneered the genre of YA dystopian novel with The Giver.
- Honest. Last sentence of Paragraph D. Even though you can use up to three words, there is nothing else to include here.
- Environmental catastrophe. Paragraph E, third sentence. Make sure to get the spelling right!
- Personal identity. Paragraph F states that teenagers are ‘dragooned into rigid moulds‘, or to put simpler, forced to conform to a certain standard. ‘Personal identity’ is mentioned before this paragraph. Mind the spelling. Status quo is an incorrect answer because it is exactly what the characters oppose – the accepted order of things.
- D. The draw is the appeal, the reason it is so interesting. The paragraph focuses on different aspects of YA distopias success and popularity. Other titles focus on secondary aspects of the text. Remember that a title should reflect the content of its respective paragraphs.
IELTS Reading Section 2
- Humans and animals. Paragraph Two, the first sentence. As you can use up to three words, you have to mention both humans and animals, otherwise you don’t get a point.
- Natural light. Second half of Paragraph Two. Once again, include the adjective ‘natural’ in your answer.
- Allelopathy. Last sentence or Paragraph Two. Be sure to spell the word correctly.
- Energy. Paragraph Three, second sentence.Nutrients are turned into energy. Metabolites is an incorrect answer as it is a substance that assists in the transformation.
- Organic compound. Same sentence in Paragraph Three. The indefinite article ‘an’ hints at the words that begins with a vowel sound. Note that both primary and secondary metabolites are organic compounds. The difficulty here is that the word ‘secondary metabolites’ is mentioned later, whereas the word for the answer is found earlier in the text.
- Inhibit growth. To inhibit is to slow some process down (usually to slow down growth). Paragraph Four, second sentence contains the answer.
- Molecular mechanism. Last sentence of Paragraph Four. Names and dates are great keywords as they usually stand out in the text because of capitalisation.
- Small doses. Paragraph Five, sentence five. Keep in mind that you can use no more than three words so answer ‘even in small doses’ will be incorrect.
- All herbivores. Paragraph Five, second half. The word ‘against’ is already in the task, make sure not to use it again.
- (Are) immediately lethal. Last sentence of Paragraph Five. The usage of verb to be is optional. However, you have to include ‘immediately’ as without it the meaning is changed dramatically. ‘Not immediately lethal’ implies that it doesn’t cause death on the spot, but the effect is postponed. ‘Not lethal’ means that it never causes death. Also mind the spelling.
- Hollowed-out structures. Paragraph Six. To reside means to live or to occupy.
- Giraffes. Another tricky word to spell.
- TRUE. It is important to understand that secondary metabolites are those that are used for defence, e.g. stunting growth. Third sentence of the last paragraph: ‘… certain allelochemicals-the aforementioned chemical compounds that are responsible for stunting growth in plants…‘.
- NOT GIVEN. Nothing about such cooperation in mention. Only the fact that the research is conducted. In order for this answer to be TRUE, every statement in the question has to be mentioned in the text.
IELTS Reading Section 3
- C. The Maori of New Zealand and Australia’s indigenous people are the examples of other groups treated similarly to deaf people.
- D. The paragraph mentions the word ‘deafness’ having negative connotations. In other words – its meaning is bad. That is why it is no longer considered appropriate. Paragraph C is incorrect as the given definition of deafness there is used in connection with Audism views.
- A. Second sentence gives the definition of the word ‘deaf’, but it does so indirectly.
Do not be misguided by the introductory questions of Paragraph E: ‘What does being ‘Deaf’ mean?’. It doesn’t focus on the meaning of the word, but on the experience of deaf people in general.
- G. Third sentence in this paragraph goes: “… who have for decades internalised society’s unfavourable views of them”. In other words, deaf people, hearing society’s unwelcoming opinions about them, have themselves adopted such views.
- E. Last sentence of Paragraph E mentions how ‘true Deafhood’ how be acheived through ‘natural language’ used within deaf people community.
- B. First sentence of the paragraph gives the origin of the term ‘Deafhood’.
- F. ‘Imperilled’ means being at risk of harm or destruction, endangered. Neo-eugenics is the source of such danger that aims to eradicate deafness by various means such as technology or genetic engineering.
- C. Last sentence of Paragraph B mentions Deafhood attempting ‘to remove the limitations imposed’ by colonisation of hearing people. Answers A, B and D do not fit as they do not relate directly to Ladd’s voiced opinion.
- A. Third and fourth sentence of Paragraph C: “… a reduced use of sign language would be more beneficial to SLPs“, “… sign language is dismissively regarded as a mere obstacle“. Other answers are not mentioned in the text.
- C. Fourth sentence of Paragraph C states that just like sign language, Australia’s indigenous people’s language was too perceived as inferior, standing in the way of listening and speaking skills.
- Natural language. Last sentence of Paragraph E. Note that you can only use up to two words, so answering ‘their natural language’ is incorrect.
- Eugenicists. Middle of paragraph F contains the answer. Be sure to spell the word correctly.
- Official recognition. Middle of the last paragraph: “We should also seek… official recognition of sign languages around the world”
The vocabulary below is meant to help you with the more difficult words. If the word isn’t on the list then you are either supposed to know it or it is too specific to be worth learning and you don’t have to know it to answer the question. Symbols in brackets mean part of speech (see bottom of the list). Sentences in italics give examples of usage for some more complex words and phrases.
And remember — you are not given a vocabulary list (or a dictionary) at your real exam.
Reading Section 1
Barrage of smth – a great number of something, such as questions, complaints (or in this case books). The footballer faced a barrage of questions after a recent scandal involving his girlfriend.
Ruthless (adj) – if a person is ruthless, they do not care about other people’s pain or suffering. I remember my boss as a cold, ruthless businessman.
Seep into – (usually of a liquid) to enter something slowly through a hall or small opening. Here it is used figuratively in the meaning ‘to find or make its way into something’. The modern attitude to gender questions have seeped into the books, films and other media.
Appealing (adj) – attractive or interesting. None of the business partners found our proposition appealing enough to fund the project.
Hard-pressed (adj) – find something difficult to do, esp. due to lack of time or money. I would be hard-pressed to pay the rent on my own without your help.
Captivating (adj) – very interesting or fascinating, taking your attention. Mike could tell even the most ordinary story in a captivating way.
A score of – twenty or approximately twenty. There was a score or so people waiting in line.
Sugar-coat (v) – to make something less unpleasant or more attractive, even though by nature it’s nothing good. You don’t have to sugarcoat it for me – I know I have failed the exam and will have to stay for another year at school.
Upsurge (n) – a sudden and dramatic increase. The bread prices usually see an upsurge in war time.
Burgeon (v) – grow of develop rapidly. Her confidence started to burgeon after landing a job with one of the big companies.
Brunt (n) – to bear the brunt in the text means to experience the main negative effect of something unpleasant. Throughout her school years Jane had to bear the brunt of her mother’s mood swings.
Gritty (adj) – (here) having unpleasant details presented in a realistic way. His last bestselling novel was a gritty account of life in the London seedy underbelly.
Dwindle (v) – to decrease in size or amount. Our money reserves dwindled over the months I had been looking for a job.
Stagnate (v) – to stop progressing, changing or developing. The business had been stagnating for almost half a year and eventually had to be closed.
Conform (v) – to follow certain customs or established norm. Younger generations are forced to conform by their parents, teachers and even their older friends.
Scrutinise (v) – to examine closely and with great attention. The company’s financial documentation is going to be scrutinised in light of the recent money-laundering scandal.
Reading Section 2
Ample (adj) – more than enough, abundant. We have ample space to put a pool table in the living room
Fierce (adj) – (here) strong and energetic. The recent alterations to work schedule were met with fierce protests.
Inhibit (v) – to stop or prevent from developing. Malnutrition is known to inhibit growth and development of children.
Soak up – to absorb something, usually liquid. Can be used figuratively e.g. he soaked up all the information presented to him.
Herbivores (n) – animals that only eat plants. A cow is the first thing that springs to mind when I think of herbivores.
Stunt (v) – to slow or stop something from growth or developed. Alcohol addiction stunted his academic progress.
Reading Section 3
Impaired (adj) – reduced in strength, damaged. His hearing is impaired because of the car crash he’s been in.
Elaborate (v) – to explain or to provide facts to back up a statement. Could you elaborate on your statement about math being useless in real life?
Twofold (adj) – twice as big or made of two parts. The benefit or renting a flat is twofold: low initial price and versatility.
Dismissive (adj) – if somebody is dismissive, they refuse to consider something, believing it not worth their attention. Maria remained dismissive of my suggestions to buy a car.
Inferior (adj) – of lesser quality or worth. My skills and experience seem to be inferior to John’s – he’s so much more proficient.