For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (А, В, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
|A beneath||В lower||C minus||D less|
Mars on Earth
The centre of Antarctica, where winter temperatures frequently fall to 0 _____ 80 degrees centigrade and for four months each year there is 1 _____ darkness 24 hours a day, is one of the most extreme environments on Earth. It is also by 2 _____ the most similar place to the surface of Mars, which is why a 3 _____ of thirteen scientists from the European Space Agency have spent nine months at a base there.
They have been studying the physical and psychological 4 _____ on humans of living in extreme conditions, in order to obtain a better understanding of the difficulties humans will 5 _____ during the long flight to Mars and their stay there. Of course, space is 6 _____ Antarctica in that astronauts have to adapt to weightlessness, but the base is 3,200 metres above sea 7 _____ making it difficult to breathe there – as it can be on space flights. They have also, like space travellers, experienced strong feelings of being 8 _____ off from civilisation.
|1||A regular||B constant||C repeated||D maintained|
|2||A far||B much||C large||D long|
|3||A crew||B cast||C gang||D team|
|4||A results||B effects||C issues||D risks|
|5||A oppose||B dare||C challenge||D face|
|6||A unlike||B contrary||C unfamiliar||D different|
|7||A height||B level||C depth||D scale|
|8||A broken||B cut||C kept||D taken|
For questions 9-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
Marathon in the mountains
The Ultra-Trail of Mont Blanc is an extreme marathon held annually 0 _____ 2003 in the mountains of France, Italy and Switzerland. Widely regarded 9 _____ one of the toughest races in the world, the Ultra-Trail takes place in August, 10 _____ temperatures frequently range from over 30°C at the lowest points of the course, to well 11 _____ freezing at the highest.
An Olympic marathon is 42.5 kilometres long, but 12 _____ one is over 160 kilometres in length and includes nine mountain peaks. That involves climbing a total of approximately 9,500 metres, 13 _____ is considerably higher than Everest. In 14 _____ of, or perhaps because of this, the annual event has become increasingly popular with runners, to 15 _____ an extent that the numbers have had to be limited to 2300. Only about half of these, 16 _____ average, are likely to finish the course, in times that typically vary from 20 hours to over 45.
For questions 17-24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the exam, write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
Jobs in the future
In twenty years’ time, which jobs will people still be doing, and which is it 0 _____ to assume will have gone forever? Today’s young people should give that question careful 17 _____ before choosing a career. Clearly there will continue to be a need for staff in 18 _____ professions such as medicine that involve caring for others, and also for people able to persuade, like 19 _____ and lawyers.
There will of course be no 20 _____ of jobs in science and technology, particularly for individuals able to 21 _____ in newer fields such as biotechnology and microbiology.
On the other hand, the already rapid 22 _____ of jobs to robots will speed up even further, as they replace workers not only in manufacturing but also in the 23 _____ industry. And as robots learn how to stack shelves, take over at check-outs or send us our online shopping, it won’t be long before most supermarket jobs have 24 _____ , too.