1 C — as a result. The phrase conveys the idea of cause and effect: it became famous because of its elegant design.
2 A — boosted. To boost popularity is the accepted collocation here.
3 A — went ahead. The idea is that the projected continued to develop.
4 B — challenge. ‘Quite a challenge’ is another collocation here.
5 C — sway. ‘To sway’ means ‘to move slowly from one side to another’. ‘To wobble’ would imply that the bridge has poor balance. ‘To shake’ can’t really be applied to something as massive as bridge (under normal conditions).
6 B — enchanting. The second part of the sentence helps us here – the mention of mist implies mystery and romance surrounding the bridge.
7 D — disappearing. Towers are so high that their tops cannot be seen in the dark – they disappear.
8 B— lost. ‘To lose a record’ is the collocation that implies leadership in something you no longer have.
9 rather. It used to contrast – doodling should be seen as something good rather than frowned upon.
10 how. The study determined the amount of understood information, or how well people understand it.
12 or. A clear comparison of two situations
13 going. ‘Going on’ is a set phrase. We can’t use ‘happening’ here because of the ‘on’ preposition.
14 longer. ‘No longer’ here means ‘not anymore’.
15 only. ‘Not only’ here is used to emphasise the usefulness of doodling.
16 on. ‘To keep on track’ means ‘to keep in control or to maintain the right direction’.
17 unfavourable/unfavorable. Note the use of negative prefix required by context.
18 problematic. An adjective is required here.
19 intensifies. ‘Intensify’ means ‘to make more serious or extreme.
20 instability. Another example where context suggests that a negative prefix is needed here – the problems of harvest are discussed and bad (or unstable) climate can contribute to the issue.
21 effectively. A special breed of rice, that uses nitrogen in an efficient, productive way.
22 performance. The word is used in the meaning of overall productivity or the ability to grow and yield harvest.
23 resistant. ‘Resistant’ means strong, unaffected by something.
24 lessen. To make less.
25 parents were / are unaware of
26 as (it is / it’s) commonly (believed / thought)
27 in the mood (to go / for going)
28 somewhere/someplace else to
29 failed to (realise / appreciate / understand) the (significance / importance)
30 there any (improvement in / increase in / increase to)
31 C. Paragraph Two, sentence three: “Indignant at the suggestion that she would willingly share a list of contacts painstakingly built up over many years…”. Answers A and D are not mentioned. Answer B doesn’t fit here – there’s a mention of regretting the tone of the message, not the fact that she refused the applicant.
32 C. Paragraph Two, at the end: “But if the incident makes young people think more carefully about how they use social media in a professional capacity, she may have actually ended up doing them a favour.”. This note helped many young people realise how serious they should approach their search for a job.
33 D. Last but one sentence of Paragraph three mentions how people can pretend to have completely different personalities on the Internet. Answer A is not mentioned (last sentence of the paragraph has a different meaning). Answer B could be used to address sentence two ideas (“When my generation were teenagers… “), however the sentence doesn’t imply conversations with teachers or parents. Answer C is not mentioned either.
34 C. Paragraph Four, second sentence states that people of that generation fail to see the difference between use of social networks for work and for leisure.
35 B. Answer A is not mentioned. Answer C mentions the author’s opinion, that young people can become a valuable part of the workforce. However, no opinion of your people themselves is given. Answer D is not mentioned – it is the older generation who think that young people appear to be arrogant; In the middle of paragraph five: “in many countries we’re increasingly desperate about finding employment…”. Here author speaks for the young people in question.
36 A. Second sentence of the last paragraph gives a clear answer to the question.
37 B. Unlike opinions in other paragraphs, the last sentence of Paragraph B believes that alternative renewable power sources will take over, and the amount of fossil fuels used will inevitably go down.
38 A. Paragraph A believes that the contribution of GHG from the developing countries is not as serious when taken at a per capita amount (“However, the GHG per person of these regions is currently still far below…).
39 B. This paragraph doubts the accuracy of climate change predictions: “even the most expert calculations are no more than speculation… “. Other paragraphs are fairly confident in the ability to foresee climatic shifts.
40 C. One but last sentence of Paragraph C states that the nature will not fail to adapt to the rapidly changing conditions on our planet.
41 F. ‘The men’ at the beginning of paragraph F are the Althouri fishermen mentioned at the end of the first paragraph.
42 B. The man start shouting, and then Paragraph B develops this part: ‘What are they saying?’. Then, Paragraph B is concluded with the author appreciating the landscape, the description of which is continued at the beginning of the following paragraph.
43 D. ‘.. other places we thought would be perfect for visiting by boat..’ is the part of Paragraph D that makes it more fitting that others. Note the description of cliffs in the previous paragraph – they are surrounded by water. Paragraph D expands on this idea. Then in the following paragraph Alex is mentioned jumping off the boat.
44 G. ‘Some defy belief’ in Paragraph G refer to the challenges from the previous paragraph.
45 E. ‘I’d already had a similar moment of awareness’ refers to the author’s imminent realisation of his own age.
46 C. ‘Looking down at the tortuous shoreline…’ helps us to understand that the narrator and his friend have finished their climbing.
47 C. Sentence three and four, beginning with ‘Think of dopamine like gasoline’.
48 D. In the bottom part of Paragraph D Paul Salopek is mentioned being intrigued in other people’s risk taking in the human history, how it propelled men forward to seek and explore.
49 C. In the second part of Paragraph C, beginning with ‘It works like this’ we are given a detailed example of the brain process in question.
50 B. Last but one sentence of Paragraph B goes ‘… we don’t all have the same amount of dopamine’, which explain different attitude towards risk-taking.
51 D. The beginning of the paragraph uses the example of driving a car to illustrate risk-taking in everyday setting and how we get used to such risk.
52 A. The second part of this paragraph gives examples of what a risk-taker could potentially lose, such as life or reputation.
53 C. The example of ‘risk-takers’ and ‘thrill-seekers’ explains the common confusion connected with the reason for various types of people to take risks.
54 D. The very last sentence of the paragraph has the answer. The author judges the idea to be noble, but taking place for a different, dopamine-related reason.
55 C. Last sentence of the paragraph gives the examples how people seek more of the same sensation, becoming addicted to the adrenaline-dopamine reaction.
56 C. In the middle, the chemical reaction associated with adrenaline injection is described.