CAE Reading and Use of English Part 8
You are going to read an article about children. For questions 47-56, choose from the sections of the article (A-E). The sections may be chosen more than once. When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order.
In which section of the article is the following mentioned?
47 an example of a sign that has become simpler.
48 the difference between how the deaf children communicate an image and how other people communicate the same image.
49 the fact that the same signs can be used in the communication of a number of ideas.
50 the characteristics of languages in general at different stages of their development.
51 a belief that language is learnt by means of a specific part of the mind.
52 an aspect of language learning that children are particularly good at.
53 how regularly the children have been monitored.
54 older children passing their sign language on to younger children.
55 the reason why the children created a particular sign.
56 opposing views on how people acquire language.
Deaf Childern’s Ad Hoc Language Evolves and Instructs
A A deep insight into the way the brain learns language has emerged from the study of Nicaraguan sign language, invented by deaf children in a Nicaraguan school as a means of communicating among themselves. The Nicaraguan children are well-known to linguists because they provide an apparently unique example of people inventing a language from scratch. The phenomenon started at a school for special education founded in 1977. Instructors noticed that the deaf children, while absorbing little from their Spanish lessons, had developed a system of signs for talking to one another. As one generation of children taught the system to the next, it evolved from a set of gestures into a far more sophisticated form of communication, and today’s 800 users of the language provide a living history of the stages of formation.
B The children have been studied principally by Dr. Judy Kegi, a linguist at the University of Southern Maine, and Dr. Ann Senghas, a cognitive scientist at Columbia University in New York City. In the latest study, published in Science magazine, Dr. Senghas shows that the younger children have now decomposed certain gestures into smaller component signs. A hearing person asked to mime a standard story about a cat waddling down a street will make a single gesture, a downward spiral motion of the hand. But the deaf children have developed two different signs to use in its place. They sign a circle for the rolling motion and then a straight line for the direction of movement. This requires more signing, but the two signs can be used in combination with others to express different concepts. The development is of interest to linguists because it captures a principal quality of human language – discrete elements usable in different combinations – in contrast to the one sound, one meaning of animal communication. ‘The regularity she documents here – mapping discrete aspects of the world onto discrete word choices – is one of the most distinctive properties of human language’ said Dr. Steven Pinker, a cognitive scientist at Harvard University.
C When people with no common language are thrown into contact, they often develop an ad hoc language known to linguists as a pidgin language, usually derived from one of the parent languages. Pidgins are rudimentary systems with minimal grammar and utterances. But in a generation or two, the pidgins acquire grammar and become upgraded to what linguists call creoles. Though many new languages have been created by the pidgin-creole route, the Nicaraguan situation is unique, Dr. Senghas said, because its starting point was not a complex language but ordinary gestures. From this raw material, the deaf children appear to be spontaneously fabricating the elements of language.
D Linguists have been engaged in a longstanding argument as to whether there is an innate, specialised neural machinery for learning language, as proposed by Noam Chomsky of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or whether everything is learned from scratch. Dr. Senghas says her finding supports the view that language learning is innate, not purely cultural, since the Nicaraguan children’s dis-aggregation of gestures appears to be spontaneous. Her result also upholds the idea that children play an important part in converting a pidgin into a creole. Because children’s minds are primed to learn the rules of grammar, it is thought, they spontaneously impose grammatical structure on a pidgin that doesn’t have one.
E The Nicaraguan children are a living laboratory of language generation. Dr. Senghas, who has been visiting their school every year since 1990, said she had noticed how the signs for numbers have developed. Originally the children represented ’20’ by flicking the fingers of both hands in the air twice. But this cumbersome sign has been replaced with a form that can now be signed with one hand. The children don’t care that the new sign doesn’t look like a 20, Dr. Senghas said; they just want a symbol that can be signed fast.
1 C — capture. To capture the moment is a paraphrase of “to take a picture, to photograph”. To seize the moment means “to enjoy yourself now rather that later”. Other two variants do not collocate.
2 В — right. Right in front of is the only existing collocation of the four given here.
3 A — counting. To count on something or somebody means “to rely on it, to put trust into it”. To settle on something means “to decide or to choose something”, but the previous sentence states that people do it “mindlessly”, so no actual choice is made. The remaining two options do not fit.
4 C — attend. To attend to something means “to try and deal with something”. Pay attention to the preposition “to”. Engage in is a common use for the first verb. Dedicate somebody to something fits here, but “dedicate” and “somebody” can’t be separated. Apply to isn’t used for the same reason.
5 D — impact. To have a negative impact on something is a widely used collocation. A common mistake is to choose “result”. It is rarely used with “on” preposition, so impact is a better choice here.
6 C — led. The students were led on a tour (past participle of lead) means that someone was leading them and it is explained right after that they were asked to do something. The other three variants do not convey this message.
7 A — accurate. All four variants collocate well with the preposition, however only the first adjective fits. Accurate here means “correct, precise” which are the words we need judging by context.
8 В — compared. The other verb that could seem as fitting here is matched. However it is usually used as transitive (without preposition)
9 it. It here refers to the New Generation Award.
10 whose. The context suggests that the mentioned start-up belongs to Kathryn Parsons.
12 them. To prove something to somebody is a set phrase that helps to understand this. “Something” part is skipped here, so we go straight to “somebody”.
13 between. Perfect to show the range of any numbers (age range in this example).
14 their. Possessive pronoun relating to “they”.
15 with / having. The question here is “what kind of women they want to recognize?”. Women with or women having a mission and a vision.
16 make. To make the world a better place is a widely used set phrase.
17 annoyance. This is the only noun that can be formed from annoy.
18 bearing. Remember that you can’t use the same word form as the one given in the task
19 reference. Indefinite article “a” suggests that we need to make it into a noun.
20 emotional. Angry or ____ means that the second word has to be an adjective too.
21 honesty. As much *noun* as possible.
22 offence. Again, a noun should be used. Don’t forget that offense is the AmE spelling and therefore shouldn’t be used here.
23 disclose. To disclose means “to reveal, to make known”.
24 truthful. An adjective is required here. Mind your spelling, only one letter l and the end of the word.
25 there’s (is/was) hardly any petrol. Almost no = hardly any.
26 had no idea (that) cars cost. Had no idea = didn’t know
27 let it get you. To be depressed = to be down. The second sentence is passive voice, so to make someone depressed = to get someone down.
28 to be making a recovery. We still have to use a continuous tense here, so we use “making” with recovery. Remember that the given word can’t be changed.
29 take her work seriously enough according. To have serious attitude to something = to take something seriously.
30 causing you such a lot of. Confuse so much – cause a lot of confusion.
31 D. A, B and C can all be used as the answer, but it will be incomplete. Answer D summarizes the idea of paragraph.
32 В. Second sentence of this paragraph holds the answer — how drastically the modern British homes got transformed. Answer D is mentioned, however it is not the key topic of this paragraph.
33 A. This paragraph is about “decentralization” of an average British home, how the living room is no longer the main place in it, and therefore people no longer spend most of their time there. Answers B and D are mentioned, but only as supporting ideas.
34 D. Answers B and C do not fit — there is no mentioning about advertising or functionality of the inventions. Answer A can’t be used because of the way it states that most inventions were dangerous, which isn’t true.
35 В. Quoting the exact excerpt: “it would be impossible for anyone to imagine their front room as a “parlour” without seeming deeply old-fashioned”
36 C. The following sentence has a M. Thatcher example that shows how little home life in Britain have changed.
37 C. Reviewer C believes that the companies chosen for the show are very unique and therefore are not a good representation of the industry. All other reviewers hold it that the companies in the show are well-chosen to give a good idea how the industry functions.
38 A. Both A and B talk about the probability of viewers losing interest as the content of this show might be too difficult to understand at first.
39 C. Reviewer C is the only one who thinks that the people in charge are portrayed as not having too many responsibilities, always able to delegate their tasks to subordinates. All other reviewers state that higher-ups are shows as hard-working, decision-making individuals.
40 A. Both A and C believe that the interview questions were not comprehensive enough.
41 G. To understand this paragraph it is important to know that sailors refer to their ships as if they were a woman, therefore the pronoun “she” used by the captain refers to the freighter vessel. It is later confirmed in the next paragraph.
42 C. Beginning the paragraph, author talks about how he came to like the ship despite its unappealing look. The second part of the paragraph is focused on uneasy situation that made the author like the ship.
43 E. “Hoping so” is a clear reference to the last part of the previous paragraph.
44 F. The beginning of next paragraph uses pronoun “they” to refer to the waves, mentioned at the end of this paragraph.
45 В. “That condition” is clearly described in the previous paragraph. The beginning of the next paragraph states that “all was well in that regard”, referring to the food supply that the electrician checked.
46 D. The paragraph names what were inside the container mentioned in the previous paragraph. The beginning of the next paragraph refers to the sailors that make the sea navigation possible.
47 E. Sign representing “20” has become simpler, formerly needing two hands to show and later only one hand.
48 В. Middle of the paragraph compares how hearing and deaf individuals mime a story about a cat walking down the street.
49 В. Below the middle of the paragraph. Similar signs in combinations can have different meanings.
50 С. The process of language evolution with pidgin language taken as an example
51 D. First sentence of the paragraph talks about the specialized part of human brain.
52 D. Last sentence of the same paragraph. Children’s minds are “primed” to learn the rules of grammar — meaning that it is much easier to learn them when young.
53 E. First sentence — the visits have been taking place every year since 1990.
54 A. The second part of the paragraph mentions how older generations of children passed on their knowledge to the younger ones.
55 E. The last sentence of the paragraph states that the children want a sign for a particular reason, in this case — one that can be shown quickly.
56 D. The first sentence of the paragraph has two opposing ideas on the language origin.