You are going to read an article about an environmental campaigner. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap (37-42). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
Would you turn off your engine, please?
I was walking around my neighbourhood in New York one spring evening two years ago when I came across a stretch limousine parked outside a restaurant. The driver’s clients were inside having dinner, and he had his engine running while he waited. It really bothered me. He was polluting the air we breathe as well as wasting huge amounts of fuel, so I knocked on the driver’s window.
I explained to him that he didn’t need to waste his boss’s money or pollute our air. I addressed the issues politely and, after a ten-minute chat, he agreed to shut off the engine. I felt empowered – I could make a difference to our environment. 37 __. So whenever I see a driver sitting with the car engine running, I go over and talk to him or her.
Six months later, I talked to a guy who turned out to be an undercover police officer. He told me he wouldn’t turn off his engine because he was on a job, but asked me if I knew there was actually a law against engine idling, as it’s called. 38 __. Sure enough, under New York City’s traffic laws, you could be fined up to $2,000 for engine idling for more than three minutes.
I had small business cards printed up that referred to the relevant law on one side and the penalties on the other, and started to hand them out to idlers. 39 __. It’s surprising how many people are unaware that they could get a fine. That’s why I start my encounters the same way every time.
I say: ‘Excuse me for bothering you, but are you aware that it is against the law in New York City to idle your car for more than three minutes?’ 40 __. They want to know who I am, am I a cop? I tell them that I’m just a concerned citizen and want to make sure we improve our environment and address our oil addiction.
We usually have a discussion and I always try to conclude the encounter on a positive and polite note, saying how great it would be if they shut off their engine so we can all have a better environment. 41 __. Most are convinced by these arguments. Indeed, I’m successful seventy-eight percent of the time. Although, of course, there are people who are aggressive or who won’t do it. My success rate with cops is only five percent.
I keep an Excel spreadsheet so that I have a precise record of each of my encounters. If I get an aggressive reaction, I list their comments and highlight them in red. 42 __. I don’t give up, however, and try to approach them professionally. But my feelings do get hurt on occasion. Then I remind myself that because I make the first approach, I’m actually the aggressor in this situation. My victims are just sitting there thinking: ‘Who is this guy?’
To date, I have had 2,500 encounters and, overall, I have made a difference. I’m in touch with the Department of Energy in Washington and my work is endorsed by the American Lung Association. And recently a New York traffic cop wrote the city’s very first ticket for idling.
A. I also tell them that it saves money and avoids breaking the law.
B. I decided to have these conversations on a regular basis after that.
C. I find this fact always takes my victims by surprise.
D. I went home and checked this out.
E. It’s not the sort of mistake that you make twice.
F. I try not to get affected emotionally if drivers respond this way.
G. I’ve been distributing them this way ever since.
You are going to read an article about advertising in public places. For questions 43 – 52, choose from the sections (A – D). The people may be chosen more than once.
Which person says that advertising
43. can be uninteresting if there’s a lack of variety? __
44. has a mostly negative impact on the urban landscape? __
45. can damage the appearance of the countryside? __
46. may be a waste of energy resources? __
47. can lead to a break of concentration in a job? __
48. should not be allowed in certain public places? __
49. can be a source of potential danger? __
50. can sometimes make you feel better? __
51. is good if it makes you think about something? __
52. is useful in providing work for talented and creative people? __
Advertising in public places, like it or love it?
A Rob Stevenson, lorry driver
The main problem is that the location of posters can be a safety hazard if they block your view of junctions or road signs. I’m not distracted from driving by the content so much, just by the fact that a poster is there. I’ve no time to read them or study them, though the names of products must stick in your memory. Posters in fields get a lot of attention because you certainly notice them as you drive down the motorway. They must be a bonus for the farmer who gets an income from them, but I suppose they do make a bit of a mess of the rural environment. On the whole, there aren’t too many posters on the roads – not compared with some countries I’ve driven through.
В Josie Pelham, cabin crew
Walking through airports in uniform, I tend not to look around too much. That’s because I run the risk of being asked questions by confused passengers who mistake me for ground crew, but helping them is not my job. But adverts in airports have a captive audience because people end up hanging around waiting for delayed flights in lounges or at boarding gates, so in those places they must work well for the advertisers. When travelling, an amusing advert can brighten up my day, but I do tend to see endless dull adverts for banks round the airport and they don’t fit into that category! Planes are even being painted externally to carry advertising. I saw one decorated to advertise house music in Ibiza. How cool is that?
C Damian Stenton, lawyer
To be honest, I can take or leave street advertising – I don’t pay it much attention and posters aren’t that obtrusive. I don’t even mind posters in the countryside, though I know that’s an issue for some groups in society. Some of the paper posters are being replaced by TV screens. I guess that enables the company to make more money, as they can switch adverts easily – and it also saves paper. But it’s rather environmentally unfriendly as each advertising screen obviously has to be powered by electricity. At a time when we’re all being urged to cut down on consumption of precious resources, putting up TV screens everywhere seems rather counterproductive.
D Danni Rochas, interior designer
I often feel surrounded by posters and advertising, it seems to be taking over our city. I am reminded of an episode of The Simpsons where the town’s outdoor advertising comes to life and hunts down the residents. I’m resigned to the fact that posters are ‘necessary’ commercialisation, but I find them less annoying when they ‘give’ something positive in exchange for being such an intrusive presence on the urban landscape. Occasionally, though, advertisers find a new angle on an issue that’s really thought-provoking and that must be positive. So maybe I’d prefer it to exist rather than not.
E Naomi Hesketh, student
I try to walk straight past most posters as if they weren’t there, but some do manage to grab your attention nonetheless. I really like those that are colourful or imaginative. I think advertising allows lots of clever people to reach a wide public with their ideas, and we all benefit from that. Why would you even look at a boring poster? I think production values are important, too, in making you trust the advertiser. I agree with banning posters from parks and on historic buildings, but there’s nothing wrong with them in shopping streets and main roads. They make the environment brighter